Basic Mathematic Symbols Names With Meaning and Examples

Permutation and Combiantion Symbols

Mathematics Symbols

Mathematical symbols are used to perform various operations. The symbols make it easier to refer to the Maths quantities. It is interesting to note that Mathematics is completely based on numbers and symbols. The math symbols not only refer to different quantities but also represent the relationship between two quantities. The mathematical symbols are mainly used to perform mathematical operations under various concepts. As we know, the concept of maths is purely dependent on numbers and symbols.

There are many symbols in Maths that have some predefined values. To simplify the expressions, we can use those kinds of values instead of those symbols. Some of the examples are the pi (π) symbol which holds the value 22/7 or 3.17, and e-symbol in Maths which holds the value e= 2.718281828….This symbol is known as e-constant or Euler’s constant. The table provided below has a list of all the common symbols in Maths with meaning and examples.

There are so many mathematical symbols that are very important to students. To understand this in an easier way, the list of mathematical symbols are noted here with definition and examples. There are numerous signs and symbols, ranging from the simple addition concept sign to the complex integration concept sign. Here, the list of mathematical symbols is provided in a tabular form, and those notations are categorized according to the concept.

List of Mathematical Symbols

Basic Maths Symbols Names With Meaning and Examples

The basic symbols help us to work with mathematical concepts in a theoretical manner. In simple words, without symbols, we cannot do maths. The mathematical signs and symbols are considered representative of the value. The basic symbols in maths are used to express mathematical thoughts. The relationship between the sign and the value refers to the fundamental need of mathematics. With the help of symbols, certain concepts and ideas are clearly explained. Here is a list of commonly used symbols in the stream of mathematics.

SymbolSymbol NameMeaning or DefinitionExample
not equal signinequality10 ≠ 6
=equals signequality3 = 1 + 2
<strict inequalityless than7 < 10
>strict inequalitygreater than6 > 2
inequalityless than or equal tox ≤ y, means, y = x or y > x, but not vice-versa.
inequalitygreater than or equal toa ≥ b, means, a = b or a > b, but vice-versa does not hold true.
[ ]bracketscalculate expression inside first[ 2×5] + 7 = 17
( )parenthesescalculate expression inside first3 × (3 + 7) = 30
minus signsubtraction5 − 2 = 3
+plus signaddition4 + 5 = 9
minus – plusboth minus and plus operations1 ∓ 4 = -3 and 5
±plus – minusboth plus and minus operations5 ± 3 = 8 and 2
×times signmultiplication4 × 3 = 12
*asteriskmultiplication2 * 3 = 6
÷division sign / obelusdivision15 ÷ 5 = 3
multiplication dotmultiplication2 ∙ 3 = 6
horizontal linedivision / fraction8/2 = 4
/division slashdivision6 ⁄ 2 = 3
modmoduloremainder calculation7 mod 3 = 1
abpowerexponent24 = 16
.perioddecimal point, decimal separator4.36 = 4 +36/100
asquare root√a · √a = a√9 = ±3
a^bcaretexponent2 ^ 3 = 8
4√afourth root4√a ·4√a · 4√a · 4√a = a4√16= ± 2
3√acube root3√a ·3√a · 3√a = a3√343 = 7
%percent1% = 1/10010% × 30 = 3
n√an-th root (radical)n√a · n√a · · · n times = afor n=3, n√8 = 2
ppmper-million1 ppm = 1/100000010ppm × 30 = 0.0003
per-mille1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1%10‰ × 30 = 0.3
pptper-trillion1ppt = 10-1210ppt × 30 = 3×10-10
ppbper-billion1 ppb = 1/100000000010 ppb × 30 = 3×10-7

Maths Logic symbols With Meaning

SymbolSymbol NameMeaning or DefinitionExample
^caret / circumflexandx ^ y
·andandx · y
+plusorx + y
&ampersandandx & y
|vertical lineorx | y
reversed caretorx ∨ y
xbarnot – negationx
Xsingle-quotenot – negationX
!Exclamation marknot – negation! x
¬notnot – negation¬ x
~tildenegation~ x
circled plus / plusexclusive or – xorx ⊕ y
equivalentif and only if (iff)
for alln/an/a
equivalentif and only if (iff)n/a
there does not existn/an/a
there existsn/an/a
because / sincen/an/a

Calculus and Analysis Symbols in Maths

SymbolSymbol NameMeaning of definitionExample
εepsilonrepresents a very small number, near-zeroε → 0
lime→alimitthe limit value of a functionlime→a(3x+1)= 3 × a + 1 = 3a + 1
derivativederivative – Lagrange’s notation(5x3)’ = 15x2
ee constant / Euler’s numbere = 2.718281828…e = Lim (1+1/x)x , x→∞
y(n)nth derivativen times derivationnth derivative of 3xn = 3 n (n-1)(n-2)….(2)(1)= 3n!
y”second derivativederivative of derivative(4x3)” = 24x
d2ydx2second derivativederivative of derivatived2dx2(6×3+x2+3x+1)=36x+1
dy/dxderivativederivative – Leibniz’s notationDDx(5x)=5
dnydxnnth derivativen times derivationn/a
y¨=d2ydt2The second derivative of timederivative of derivativen/a
Single derivative of timederivative by time – Newton’s notationn/a
D2xsecond derivativederivative of derivativen/a
Dxderivativederivative – Euler’s notationn/a
integralopposite to derivationn/a
 af(x,y)axpartial derivative∂(x2+y2)/∂x = 2xn/a
triple integralintegration of the function of 3 variablesn/a
double integralintegration of the function of 2 variablesn/a
closed surface integraln/an/a
closed contour / line integraln/an/a
[a,b]closed interval[a,b] = {x | a ≤ x ≤ b}n/a
closed volume integraln/a
(a,b)open interval(a,b) = {x | a < x < b}n/a
z*complex conjugatez = a+bi → z*=a-biz* = 3 + 2i
iimaginary uniti ≡ √-1z = 3 + 2i
nabla / delgradient / divergence operator∇f (x,y,z)
zcomplex conjugatez = a+bi → z = a-biz = 3 + 2i
* yconvolutiony(t) = x(t) * h(t)n/a
lemniscateinfinity symboln/a
δdelta functionn/an/a


Combinatorics Symbols in Mathematics

Combinatorics is a stream of mathematics that concerns the study of the combination of finite discrete structures. Some of the most important symbols are:

Permutation and Combiantion Symbols

Greek Alphabet Letters Used in Maths

Mathematicians frequently use Greek alphabets in their work to represent the variables, constants, functions and so on. Some of the commonly used Greek symbols are listed below:

Greek SymbolGreek Letter NameEnglish EquivalentPronunciation
Upper Case
Lower Case

Common Numeral Symbols

NameEuropeanRomanHindu ArabicHebrew
one hundred100C١٠٠ק

These are some of the most important and commonly used symbols in mathematics. It is important to get completely acquainted with all the maths symbols to be able to solve maths problems efficiently. It should be noted that without knowing maths symbols, it is extremely difficult to grasp certain concepts on a universal scale. Some of the key importance of maths symbols are summarized below.

Importance of Maths Symbols

  • Helps in denoting quantities
  • Establishes relationships between quantities
  • Helps to identify the type of operation
  • Makes reference easier
  • Maths symbols are universal and break the language barrier


Frequently Asked Questions on Math Symbols

What is the symbol for pi?

The symbol of pi is π. It is a Greek alphabet. The value of pi is approximately equal to 3.14, and it is considered an irrational number. It is considered the most widely used mathematical constant, which is defined as the ratio of circle circumference to its diameter.

What is e symbol in mathematics?

The “e” symbol in maths represents Euler’s number which is approximately equal to 2.71828…It is considered one of the most important numbers in mathematics. It is an irrational number and it cannot be represented as a simple fraction

Write down the symbols for basic arithmetic operations.

The symbols for basic arithmetic operations are addition (+), subtraction (-), Multiplication (×), Division(÷).

Why do we use mathematical symbols?

Mathematics is a universal language and the basics of maths are the same everywhere in the universe. Mathematical symbols play a major role in this. The definition and the value of the symbols are constant. For example, the Roman letter X represents the value 10 everywhere around us.

Mention the logic symbols in maths.

The logic symbols in maths are:
AND (^)
OR (∨)
NOT (¬)
Implies (⇒)
Equivalent (⇔)
For all (∀)
There exists (∃)


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